fb tw yt g+
Guidelines

Guidelines Controllers

It is a service that has the aim of srting, speed up, separate and make the air traffic flow safe. We can classify it in 3 sub-services:

  • Aerodrom control service: Provided to the aerodrome traffic. The air traffic control position that provides it is the TWR (Control Tower) in the ATZ / CTR.
  • Approach control service: Provided to the departure and arrival controlled traffic. It is provided by APP (Approach Control Office) in the vecinity of the airport.
  • Area control service: Provided to the controlled traffic in control areas. It is provided by ACC (Area Control Center) in CTAs, TMAs and AWYs.

In many occasions, in our country it is not necessary to open a position for each control sub-service. Therefore, one position can provide one, two or even three services simultaneously and control one or more airspaces. It means that Rosario Tower (SAAR_TWR) does the job for control tower and approach control as it controls the whole CTR and TMA. Hence, it does the job of Center when aircrafts cross the TMA flying en route.

General Considerations Guidelines

Virtual operations on IVAO Network try to simulate the reality as it gets. Nevertheless, some principles as kindness and the spirit of respecting and helping others (known as IVAO spirit) cannot be forgotten.

Some IT questions applied by the IVAO Headquarters to all its divisions as databases, connection ways, connection IDs of the positions, etc. must be adaptedby the different realities of the countries around the globe and this job belongs to each division.

The following guidelines are considered as internal operation rules of the Argentinian division. Any question, query and/or suggestion can be made by sending an email to the ATC Ops Coordinator (AR-AOC) to ar-aoc@ivao.aero.

Airspaces Controllers

The airspace is an air mass whose dimensions are defined vertically and horizontally. In Argentina, we can find the following:

FIR Upper Airspace Flight Information Region

Airspace of defined dimensions that extends upwards unlimitedly from the vertical limit of one or more flight information regions (FIR). In this airspace, flight information and alert services are provided.

FIR Lower Airspace Flight Information Region

Airspace of defined dimensions, which flight information and alert services are provided in.

CTA Control Area

Controlled airspace that extends upwards from a specified limit from the surface of the earth. The control areas can be:

  • AWY: Control area or part of it disposed as a corridor and equipped with navaids.
  • TMA: Control area established generaly in the confluence of ATS routes in the vecinity of one or more main aerodromes.

CTR Control Zone

Controlled airspace that extends upwards from the surface of the earth up to a specified upper limit. It is determined in the vecinity of an airport with IFR flights and can include more than one aerodrome inside.

ATZ Air Traffic Zone

Airspace of defined dimensions established around an aerodrome for the air traffic protection.

Coordination Controllers

It is a service that has as aim sorting, speeding up, separate and make safe the air traffic flow. We can classify it in 3 sub-services:

Channels

It will be done exclusively through private channels between controllers. We can use the private IvAc chat or the INTERCOM function.

Languages

The language to use between positions within our country and adjacent positions of confinant countries as Chile, Uruguay, Bolivia and Paraguay, and english or portuguese with Brazil.

Procedures

The coordination must be agreed according to the traffic necessities. The decision made by the controller who receives the aircraft will always prevale. For example: a flight arriving to the airport of Córdoba (SACO) must be transferred by Córdoba Control (SACO_APP) to Córdoba Tower (SACO_TWR) at some point inside the limits of the controlled airspace by Córdoba Tower, that means Córdoba CTR or even some miles earlier.

SACO_TWR will request to SACO_APP on the coordination where and with what flight parameters (flight level and speed) should be transferred. Given the case that the upper control requests information about charts in use, the controller will have to tell the pilot to cotnact the other position for more information. Given the opposite case, that an aircraft departs, the coordination must done before the takeoff providing restrictions of climb or requests of crossing a point above or below a certain flight level.

Operations Controllers

All the operations must be performed via voice. The only positions that are exempt from this requirement are the ones ending with _DEL.

ATIS Controllers

The field ATC Position must be filled in with the position callsign, i.e.: Whoever is connected as SAVT_TWR will write €œTRELEW TOWER. All in capital letters. Not relevant information shall be omitted.

Operational Notices Operations Closure / Opening

Notice about operations opening/closure must be performed on the Commbox tab ATC in english.

SSR Transponder Code Assignment

For the assignment, the squawk generator will have to be used. Unless the situation requires a big load of work, manual assignment will not be allowed.

You can access the Squawk Generator from: ResourcesTCG or clicking here.

ATS Radar Procedures

At IVAO thanks to IvAc that gives us the position of a virtual aircraft by means of an IT system of data transmission, we know the position of the aircrafts in our airspace as we would be in front of a radar. In real life this is not like that. In real life, aircrafts are seen in a radar range that has got a distance limit determined by the wavelength of a radiofrequency signal.
Therefore, with the aim of simulating the reality, the positions that provide radar control service will be then defined. These ones are able to give vectors always above the MRVA of each sector, expressed here and there is no necessity of asking the pilot to report constantly its position, as it is on the radar screen.

The rest of the positions provide control by procedures, that is to say, thay cannot give vectors, only radioelectrical or magnetical references and thay must ask the pilot to report the position and flight parameters.

Radar control positions are the following:

  • Ezeiza Center (SAEF_CTR) *Note1
  • Baires Control (SABA_APP)
  • Mar del Plata Control (SAZM_APP)
  • Cordoba Center (SACF_CTR) *Note2
  • Cordoba Control (SACO_APP)
  • Mendoza Control (SAME_APP)
  • Mendoza Center (SAMF_CTR) *Note3

Note 1: Ezeiza North and Ezeiza South provide radar servicee within 100 NM from EZE VOR from FL95 upwards and from FL145, from mile 100 until mile 150. Outside this airspace, radar service will continue to be provided in the whole FIR from FL195.

Note 2: Cordoba North (only airways) and Cordoba South provide radar service in the whole FIR from FL195.

Note 3: Mendoza Center provides radar service in the whole FIR from FL195.

FRAs Facility Rating Assignments

The rating assignment was done to restrict tower control positions (_TWR) that comprise a CTR and a TMA due to the potential workload product of the large quantity of airspace to be controlled and the control services that must be provided, therefore rating AS3 was assigned.

Similarly, approach facilities (_APP) that comprise only a TMA. However, approach control facilities, which comprise a TMA and provide radar service, will require the rating AS3 + English. ADC will be required for those ones where the TMA has got a staggered base (Baires Control and Resistencia Control).

On the other hand, AS2 will be required for control towers (_TWR) that comprise only a CTR. Ground (_GND) and Delivery (_DEL) facilities will require AS1 or AS2 indistinctly. Area Control (_CTR) facilities will require ADC due to the language requirement and their big coverage area.

Exceptions: In case of events, exams or another situation that the ATC Operations Department considers, FRAs will be released to some particular members. AR-AOC reserves this right.

DEL Delivery

Only in SAEZ (Ezeiza) and SABE (Aeroparque) we will find Delivery (DEL) facilities. However, in the rest of airports, Ground (GND) will assume this function.

It will be composed by the next set data and order:

  • Aircraft callsign
  • Flight Level or Altitude
  • Clearance Limit
  • Departure and runway in use
  • Altitude or flight level restrictions
  • Squawk

Examples of a correct approval of a flightplan following the set data and order: Flight that performs standard departure and does not have altitude or FL restrictions during the departure:

LV-ARG, cleared to FL320 to Cordoba, ATOVO2A departure, runway in use 11, no departure restrictions, squawk 1614 (this number varies according to the squawk generator).

Flight that performs a non-standard departure with no altitude or FL restrictions during the departure:

LV-ARG, cleared to FL370 to Ezeiza, direct departure to MAGDO, runway in use 32, no departure restrictions, squawk 2073 (this number varies according to the squawk generator).

Flight that performs a departure with restrictions:

LV-ARG, cleared to FL330 to Rosario, ASEMI1 departure UTRAX transition, runway in use 36, on departure maintain FL045 until ASEMI, squawk 2035 (this number varies according to the squawk generator).

This clearance must be coordinated with the adjacent facilities when planning an aircraft departure in order not to interfere with the path of other aircrafts on arrival, departure or enroute. The appropriate controller will verify that the pilot filled in an A (for altitudes) when the flight developes below the TA (transition altitude) and F (for Flight Levels) when the flight developes above the TA. No flights will be able to develop on the TA or TRL nor the airspace that exists between this levels. We understand as level, the vertical distance of an aircraft indistinctly of the taken reference: height, altitude or flight level.

The flight level must be ODD or EVEN according to the track of the first airway it flies. IFR flights will maintain quadrantal levels, that is 1000, 2000, 3000, etc. and VFR flights, quadrantal levels + 500, that is 1500, 2500, 3500, etc. However, those VFR flights that develop inside controlled airspaces like a CTR, TMA or airway, will maintain the same quadrantal levels as IFR flights. Please see the table below.

An air traffic permission is the clearance that the controller provides to a pilot for the flight to develop inside a defined airspace according to the flightplan (FPL).

  • Aerodrome control service: Provided to the aerodrome traffic. The air traffic control facility that provides it, is the Tower (TWR) in the ATZ and CTR.
  • Approach control service: Provided to the departures and arrivals. It is provided by the APP (Approach / Approach Control Office) in the CTR.
  • Area control service: Provided to the control flights in control areas. It is provided by the ACC (Area Control Center) in the CTA, TMA and AWY.

On many occasions, in our country it is not necessary to put a facility for each control sub-service, therefore one only facility can provide one, two or even three services simultaneously and control one or more airspaces. That is to say that Rosario Tower (SAAR_TWR) provides aerodrome and approach control as it controls the whole TMA and the CTR.

GND Ground Control

Ground control (GND) has got jurisdiction on aircrafts on ground on movement or not except for the runway, where the aerodrome control tower (TWR) has got exclusive jurisdiction.

Ground will regulate ground maneouvres, such as taxi from runway to apron, apron to runway or within the apron. Whenever there is a necessity of crossing the runway, the aircraft will have to wait at the holding point until the crossing is coordinated between Ground and Tower. This facility will also provide startup and pushback approvals as well as ground vehicles movements.

Not all the airports count with a ground control service as well as not all airports count with a delivery service (DEL). In this case, GND will assume DEL service.

What do I need to control Ground?

  • Aerodrome chart (available in the charts section on the website)
  • Sectorfile including the required airport.

At first contact, we must check that the pilot confirms ATIS info. This way, we know thay have the weather report, runway in use, etc. If they do not have it, we must provide it.

Afterwards, the flightplan clearance will be required (as explained in Delivery / DEL) and, then, the startup and the pushback. At that moment, the turn will be provided (1, 2, 3...) depending on other aircrafts on the maneouvres area, indicating the runway in use and the QNH.

When finished, taxi will be instructed via the necessary taxiways until the holding point of the runway in use. In case the aircraft must taxi behind another one, the corresponding traffic information will be given. Please find an example below:

LVARG, taxi behind the B738 of Argentina Airlines to holding point runway 13 via A and 5.

As you can see, the type of aircraft must be provided.

In case of convergent or front approaching traffic on ground, the ATC will decide the priority.

Once the aircraft is at the holding point, it will be handed over to the TWR facility by right-clicking on the airacraft and selecting TRANSFER to choose the adjacent facility. The pilot will have to be told to contact the next facility, as per below:

LVARG contact Aeroparque Tower on 118.85, good day.

If there is no upper adjacent facility, RELEASE option will be selected instead in order to transfer the aircraft to UNICOM.

Similarly, an arrival traffic, once the runway has been vacated, must be transferred to GND.

To get access to all these interactions, the option ASSUME must be selected from the menu that shows up by right-clicking on the aircraft.

The aircraft that vacates the runway in use will be instructed to taxi to the apron and once there, the aircraft will be cleared to change frequency, as per the below:

LVARG frequency change approved, good day. Many thanks for flying in IVAO Argentina.

TWR Aerodrome Control Tower

The tower controller (TWR) has got as a jurisdiction the Control Zone (CTR) that sorrounds the aerodrome and its runways.

It is the facility responsible for delivering takeoffs, landings, trfafic patterns clearances and applying instrument approach procedures by means of the use of IACs (Instrument Approach Charts), instructing runway crossings and all the movements inside its CTR or the assigned airspace.

In most airports of Argentina, towers control the Control Zones (CTR) and the Terminal Control Areas (TMA) doing the job as TWR and APP on the same frequency. In this case, TWR will assign SIDs and STARs.

The only airports that count with APP are SAEZ and SABE (by means of SABA_APP), SACO, SARE, SAME, SAZM, SAZB, SAVC and SAWG.

What do I need to control Tower?

  • Aerodrome Chart
  • Instrument Approach Charts (IAC)
  • SID and STAR charts
  • Airport sector file
  • Document AD 2.0 of the airport (available at http://ais.anac.gov.ar/aip section "AD"€)

It is fully mandatory knowing the controlled airspace, whether the CTR or the TMA, runways, charts and approaches in use, standard arrivals and departures, lower and upper airways that cross our airspace, as well as vertical and horizontal limits.

Take-off and landing clearances must be provided with the wind information (direction and speed). A rounded direction must be provided. This means that wind 356/13 must be reported as 360° at 13 knots. When the speed is less than 5 knots, the runway with the best approach conditions, as navaids or light indications, could be chosen. Similarly, all descend clearances below the transition level must be provided with the QNH.

Likely, the Tower is responsible for determining tthe transition level (see Library).

Departures must always be coordinated with APP. In the case of APP absence, that is to say TWR/APP must report directly to Center the exit point of the TMA, as well as the time of arrival and the flight level at that point.

APP Approach Control Office

In Argentina Republic, the approach control is found separately from the Tower controller at the following airports:

  • SABE and SAEZ, provided by Baires Control (SABA_APP) *
  • SAZM, provided by Mar del Plata Control (SAZM_APP) *
  • SARE, provided by Resistencia Control (SARE_APP)
  • SACO, provided by Córdoba Control (SACO_APP) *
  • SAME, provided by Mendoza Control (SAME_APP) *
  • SAWG, provided by Gallegos Control (SAWG_APP)
  • SAVC, provided by Comodoro Control (SAVC_APP)
  • SAZB, provided by Bahía Blanca Approach (SAZB_APP)

At those facilities marked with a star (*), radar service is provided.

Note: Although the connection callsign has got the extension _APP, all of them must be called by radio "Control"€ except Bahía Blanca since it is determined this way by the AIP.

These facilities control only the TMA, guiding the aircraft from the entry point of the TMA to the IAF, in a direct way or through a STAR, as well as the aircrafts holding at any point under the control of this facility. Similarly, for the departure traffic, this facility guides the aircraft from the initial climb after take-off (normally 3000ft) to the sector exit point, in a direct way or through a SID.

What do I need to control APP?

Vectors shall never be provided below the minimum flight level or altitude.

Transfers from APP to TWR shall be performed 10nm before the CTR limits or the transfer point to start the approach. From TWR to APP, the aircraft shall be handed over at 3000ft.

Transfers from APP to CTR (Center) shall be performed reaching the exit point of the TMA or before reaching its vertical limit, usually FL245, and similarly from CTR to APP.

In the case of two adjacent TMAs, the handover will be performed between them omitting CTR. If this is the case, for example, at La Rioja (SANL), Catamarca (SANC), Tucuman (SAN), Santiago del Estero (SANE) and Salta (SASA), transfers must be performed between these TWRs (since these airports do not have APP and the TWR acts as APP) omitting Córdoba Center (SACF_CTR).

If there is no TWR online, but there is Center, the aircraft shall be handed over to Center.

CTR Area Control Center (ACC)

The area control service is provided by the ACC (Area Control Center) or mostly known on IVAO as CTR. It must be clarified that the extension _CTR as a connection on IVAO as Center controller is not the same as CTR as a Control Zone.

The center controller has got as jurisdiction all the airways (AWYs) inside a FIR. This means that it does not control any aircraft inside the FIR, but any aircraft on any AWY inside the FIR. For that condition to take place, the aircraft must be between the horizontal and vertical limits of the AWY.

Enroute aircrafts shall maintain a separation of 15nm and 1000ft between the minimum level of the airway and FL290, and 1000ft between FL290 and FL410 (depending on the aircraft RVSM / Reduced Vertical Separation Minima certification)

Regarding transfers, we must remember that most of the TMAs are controlled by TWR, except the cases when CTR and TMA are controlled by TWR and APP respectively. That is to say, transfers between CTR and TWR are totally usual in many argentinian airports. Transfers shall be preformed in coordination with the adjacent coordinator. This means that we are going to give descend clearances as coordinated, for example:

LV-ARG call ready to descend, expect FL110 over ASADA

Similarly, it must be done with climbings.

We must take into consideration that most TMAs have as vertical limit FL245, other ones have lower limits like FL195 or FL075. This means that, if an aircraft flying on an airway at FL180 entries into a TMA with vertical limit FL245, CTR must hand the aircraft over to TWR or APP, while the aircraft flies inside that TMA. If the vertical limit would hve been FL075, the aircraft would have remained on CTR frequency.

Transfers between different CTRs shall be performed 15nm before the sector exit point.

In order to provide separation, speed adjustments or radar vectors will be instructed. We can appreciate more separation techniques on the Basic ATC Manual in the Library on this website.

Center is responsible for providing the squawks in case the squawk generator (TCG) does not work.

What do I need to control CTR?

  • Enroute charts (ENR).
  • Knowledge of the airways and TMAs inside the FIR.
  • Knowledge of the local procedures of each airport inside the FIR.
  • Knowledge of the sub-divisions of the airspace inside the FIR.
  • Knowledge of the control procedures of the FIR.

It is important to highlight that the only CTR that provides radar service is Ezeiza Center (SAEF_CTR) inside the CTA Ezeiza (Ezeiza Control Area). This airspace is defined by a circle of 100nm with the VOR EZE as a center between FL095 and FL450, and 150 nm with VOR EZE as a between FL145 and FL450. Outside this airspace, radar service is not provided and position report and ETA shall be requested to aircrafts. Reports shall be provided as follows:

  • Callsign
  • Position
  • UTC Time
  • Altitude or Flight Level
  • Next point and ETA
  • Next point from the previous one

For example:

Ezeiza Center, LV-ARG position EGOKO at 12:35 flight level 220. We estimate EDRON at 12:53. Next point is NEU.

And the answer from Ezeiza Center:

Roger LV-ARG, I expect you at 12:53 over EDRON

Whenever the ETA to the next point is later than 30 mins, the Center facility should request "normal flight" report each 30 minutes. Let's suppose that we cross EGOKO at 12:35 and we are going to cross EDRON at 13:15. We are going to report normal flight at 13:05 and EDRON at 13:15.

We must take consideration that the ATIS of a CTR position shall never contain runways in use, transition altitude or level nor any specific airport information. Only the position name in English. (EZEIZA CENTER, MENDOZA CENTER, etc.) If necessary, useful information can be included on the section "Remarks" as in the case of SAEF:

Radar services is provided within 100 and 150 nm sorrounding SAEZ over FL095 and FL145 respectively / Servicio radar provisto dentro de las 100 y 150 nm con centro en SAEZ a partide FL095 y FL145 respectivamente.

Emergency Procedures Controllers

When an aircraft decalres emergency, there are several things that we must do for it to develop normally on its duration.

The controller must obtain relevant information about what happened to the aircraft, what failure occurred, how many souls are onboard, its autonomy, if it is going to reach the runway and, lastly, if it requires emergency services.
Once the controller gets to know all the data, the emergency will be able to be managed more effectively.

The controller must remember that if other facilities are active, the emergency must be announced and coordinated with the rest of the facilities in order to inform the rest of the aircrafts, as well as the rest of the aircrafts on frequency must be informed.

The controller must clarify to all the aircrafts that there is an emergency and, therefore, the airport is currently closed until the end of the emergency. What does this mean? That no aircrafts will be able to land or take off until the aircraft on emergency declares its end.This does not mean that the flights airborne must flight to the alternate airport, but the controller must be able to tell them what to to do in order not to interfere with the aircraft on emergency. Please find an example below:

An aircraft is arriving to Mar del Plata and declares emergency due to the loss of an engine. The controller must be clear that the aircraft has the priority and, therefore, if there are other aircrafts on the way, the controller must organize them in order to give priority to the one on emergency. In the case of VFR flights flying in the zone, the controller should make them orbit at some point in order to keep the control zone clear of traffic. Aircrafts on ground shall be able to maneouvre without any problem.

During an emergency, the controller must communicate only with the affected aircraft, shall dispatch aircrafts already airborne and shall tell them what to do in order to keep the area clear of traffic. However, the controller shall not approve any flightplan under any circumstances. The frequency shall be kept in silence and all landing or take-off requests shall be ignored.

The controller shall provide to the emergency weather information such as wind, visibility, ceiling and QNH. A quicker way to the runway may be suggested to the aircraft.